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OLGIS-TN Help and How To
Peter A. Piccione
© 2019. All rights reserved

The OLGIS-TN

The Online Geographical Information System for the Theban Necropolis (OLGIS-TN) is a fully-entailed historical and archaeological database integrated with maps and interactive mapping features of the non-royal Egyptian tombs in the necropolis of Western Thebes. The purpose of the OLGIS-TN is to provide tools for archaeological site management, historical preservation, research, education and an understanding of the ancient cemeteries of Thebes.

The OLGIS-TN database and maps run--both in the field and the office--on any computing device that receives Internet data, including: desktop and laptop computers, tablets, iPads, notebooks, and smartphones. To navigate through the Theban necropolis in real-time fashion also requires GPS capability in the same device. However, users of smartphones might find that their small screens are not as convenient for mapping and searching as devices with larger screens. Users working in the field might find the screens of iPads, tablets, notebooks, and 2-in-1 laptops to provide more convenience.

The OLGIS-TN is built on a platform of Esri's ArcGIS Pro mapping software. This Map Viewer and interface operate as a pre-formatted template of ArcGIS Online, which works best on 64-bit devices and web browsers. Regardless, it is designed to work on multiple platforms (mobile and tablet devices), although some windows and pop-ups might appear slightly altered. If a window does not permit scrolling, then zoom out manually to see all the content in the same frame. Pop-ups must be enabled to allow the application to function properly in the web browser.


ArcGIS Online Template: Strengths and Constraints

While the OLGIS-TN database operates under Esri's ArcGIS Pro mapping and analytics software, the web viewer for these pages is Esri's own ArcGIS Online created through templates in Web AppBuilder for ArcGIS. The great strength of this ArcGIS online viewer is that anyone can search the necropolis and produce maps without any knowledge of ArcGIS and its regular command structure.

On the other hand, anyone aware of the capabilities and potential of ArcGIS' more powerful desktop version would recognize certain limitations in this online application (e.g., an inability to perform certain area selections). Despite these constraints, this database is still a powerful tool for: 1) studying the Theban necropolis using maps of very high resolution; 2) finding and identifying tombs and their associated data; 3) managing the site and its antiquities; 4) understanding the essential relationship of tombs to topography and cemeteries to landscape; 5) revealing any number of patterns (social, geographical, archaeological etc.) in the distribution of the tombs and features throughout the necropolis.

Any scholars running ArcGIS on their own computers and who wish to perform more sophisticated manipulations of the data can download data and open layers and maps in their own software. The only constraint here is that OLGIS-TN does not facilitate, nor permit, dumping or cloning the entire database with its lists of the tombs' UTM coordinates on to other servers and computers.


Extent and Content of the Map

  1. The OLGIS-TN database currently catalogs and maps by GPS satellites some 734 non-royal tombs and burials in central Sheikh Abd el-Qurnah on the West Bank of Thebes.
  2. This part of the necropolis was mapped using Differential GPS (DGPS) in 2005-2006 by the Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs Project of the University of Charleston, S.C., which operates in tandem with the OLGIS-TN. Field work was executed under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities with full logistical support of The American Research Center in Egypt, Inc., and ultimate funding provided by the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities through the ARCE Fellowship Program.
  3. Differential GPS (DGPS). Typical methods of correcting Differential GPS (DGPS) coordinates were difficult in Egypt in 2005 due to the lack of publicly accessible CORS reference ground stations. Therefore, using the specific technique of "pseudo-differential" GPS mapping (in which the survey-grade GPS receiver re-doubles as its own reference station), the project strove to achieve an accuracy in locating tombs within 20 cm. [1] However, perusal of the map will show that this was not always possible because of recurrent issues related to satellite geometry and vacillating signal strength (number of satellites, PDOP, etc.).
  4. Error Factor: In this iteration of the OLGIS-TN, tomb coordinates have not been fully corrected. Many are dead on with the satellite base map; others may be shifted to the northeast 5-15 m. (note: many earlier satellite maps have their own built-in error factors). Future iterations of the database will correct this shift.
  5. As a continuing project, the database presently constitutes only some 43% of an estimated total of more than 1700 known pharaonic era non-royal tombs and burials across the entire necropolis. [2]
  6. Thus far, OLGIS-TN has mapped, catalogued, and photographed tombs in the following cemeteries of the larger necropolis:
    1. Gebel Sheikh abd el-Qurnah Upper Enclosure
    2. Gebel Sheikh abd el-Qurnah Reverse (western) Slope, including MMA 1100 cemetery
    3. Sheikh abd el-Qurnah Plain, east to the Ramesseum and north, including MMA 800 cemetery
    4. Sheikh abd el-Qurnah Lower Enclosure
    5. el-Khokha
    6. Nimsawy (located between el-Khokha and Asasif)
    7. Asasif East, including concessions of the German and Austrian Institutes; rock tombs in the ridges south and north adjoining the Thutmose III Causeway, as well as at the valley entrance, including the MMA 300 cemetery;
    8. Asasif West, including the Italian and Belgian concessions and MMA 811-839 cemetery
    9. Deir el-Bahari, tombs in the cliff-face and closely surrounding the temples, along the northern slope (west end only) including the MMA 500 cemetery, and the quarry adjoining the Hatshepsut causeway (e.g. tt353 [Senenmut] and MMA 100 cemetery)
    10. Deir el-Bahari Southern Wadi with MMA 200 cemetery and tt320 (royal cache)
    11. Qurnet Murai along the main road only
    12. Qurnah South (also called "Southern Asasif")
  7. Not included thus far are: el-Târif (Centrâl and Abu Shauw), Dra Abu el-Naga (Hasâsna and Atteiyât); Deir el-Bahari Valley Temple area, foot of the causeway, and northern slope (east end); Deir el-Bahari Southern Wadis; Qurnet Murai (hill); Deir el-Medina (east and west slopes; Medinet Habu; and the far Southern Valleys (south of the Queens Valley). The ultimate intention of the Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs Project is to return to Western Thebes--with the permission of the Ministry of Antiquities--and complete mapping these areas.
  8. As each tomb was mapped, it was also photographed, where possible, including exterior views and immediate surroundings, as well as relevant geological and topographical features. Where accessible, the interior was also photographed to reveal its architecture, layout and geology. The database includes only a small selection of images for each tomb.
  9. As early as 2006, the Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs project provided a full copy of all the raw mapping data and coordinates for the 734 tombs and burials to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities (formerly the Supreme Council of Antiquities) and to the Egyptian Antiquities Information System (now the GIS Center). The Ministry has incorporated this data into its maps and master plan of the Theban necropolis for the purposes of site management and preservation. [3]


Numbering Tombs and Tomb-Number Series

  1. The tombs in the database are numbered according to the traditional numbering series applied to Theban tombs, including:
    - "Theban Tomb nos." (prefix: "tt", e.g., "tt072")
    The "tt"-no. series is propagated in B. Porter and R. Moss, Topographical Bibliography 1/12 (Oxford, 1960); it designates over 400 tombs from Dra Abu el-Naga to Deir el-Medina, and it was created to consolidate the earlier separate series employed variously by Hay, Champollion, Lepsius, and Baraize;
    - Kampp nos. (prefix: "k", e.g. k061)
    Kampp numbers are assigned by F. Kampp, Die Thebanische Nekropole: Zum Wandel des Grabgedankens von der XVIII. bis zur XX. Dynastie, Theben 13, pts 1-2 (Mainz am Rhein, 1996). Note: these numbers were formulated originally with dashes (e.g., "-61-"). However the prefix "k" is assigned to these numbers (e.g.. "k061"), since dashes cannot be easily reconciled as a numeric field in an electronic database.
    - Metropolitan Museum of Art nos. (prefix: "mma", e.g., "mma1120")
    The "mma" series of tomb numbers was created by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in its early excavations across the Qurnah necropolis to designate tombs in its various numbered cemeteries; some of these tombs were also later assigned "tt"-nos.;
    - Provisional nos. (prefix: "p", e.g., "p021")
    The Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs project assigned provisional numbers as temporary designations to those tombs that have no Theban tomb number or any clear number, including tombs newly discovered and mapped in 2005-2006, tombs whose numbers were uncertain to the project at the time, tombs without standard designations (e.g., those private tombs catalogued in Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography 1/22, as well as new tombs recently discovered or published up to 2006 (e.g., by Austrian, German, Spanish, and Hungarian expeditions).
  2. Alternative tomb number series are also recorded in the database, for example: the Asasif tombs of the Austrian Institute (e.g., "Grab XV") or Qurnah tombs of recent Hungarian excavations (e.g., "Saff 1 (Hung.)"), or Carter tomb nos. (e.g., "Carter82"). These are recorded in the "Alternate Tomb no."-data field, where they exist alongside the main "Tomb no."-field with its "tt", Kampp, or "provisional" nos. The same is true of "mma" nos. Similarly, where Kampp gave numbers to tombs that already had "mma" or "tt" nos., her "k"-nos. are also listed as alternates to those earlier numbers. In the future, the numbers of Hay, Baraize, Champollion, and Lepsius will also be added as alternate numbers.


Satellite Mapping Coordinates and Parameters

  1. This OLGIS-TN map of the necropolis employs as its datum: ellipsoid WGS 84, i.e., World Geodetic System 1984, UTM zone 36N.
  2. OLGIS-TN locates tombs according to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) global coordinate system. The database employs metric "eastings" and "northings". It does not use degrees latitude and longitude (however, ArcGIS Online renders only latitude and longitude for coordinates that appear in pop-up menus and on markers and pins (a regrettable quirk of the software!).
  3. In UTM zone 36N, "eastings" are the number of meters east of the Prime Meridian (Greenwich, UK);
  4. "northings" are the number of meters north of the Equator.
  5. Tombs and features can be located precisely (to the centimeter!) from those reference lines (e.g., TT072 = 460645.405 E x 2846190.452 N meters). [4]
  6. Distances from one tomb or feature to any other can be precisely calculated merely by subtracting their coordinates from each other (otherwise difficult with degrees latitude and longitude) (e.g., TT070 = 460653.143 E x 2846168.823 N meters; hence, TT070 is 7.738 m. west of TT072 & 21.692 m. south).


Getting Started

  1. Orientation
    1. The GIS map and database consist of a series of transparent layers (data and maps) stacked vertically on top of a satellite base map.
    2. The Main Window (Map Viewer) of the OLGIS-TN opens with a satellite base map showing the locations of the mapped tombs in Western Thebes.
    3. On the left side of the Main Window (Map Viewer) is a vertical Navigation Pane with a list of Main Menu icons (from top to bottom | 📂 see example |:
      1. Table of Eras (tomb dates)
      2. Layers
      3. Base Map Gallery
      4. Help/Information
      5. More Menus
    4. Clicking a menu icon causes its menu tray to slide open to the left, or else click the right arrow (⏩) at the bottom of the tray. To close the menu tray, click the left-arrow (⏪) at the bottom of the tray.
    5. Located in the upper left corner of the map is a cluster of command widgets, including (clockwise):
      1. Query box (simple keyword searches)
      2. Printer (print maps and search results)
      3. Ruler (measuring tool)
      4. Filter (custom or structured searches)
      5. Find My Location (compass: auto-fills the user's location for GPS use)
      6. House (home view, default zoom)
      7. Plus/Minus (zoom in / zoom out)
    6. At the bottom center of the map is a tab that opens the "All Theban Tombs"-Attribute Table (the spreadsheet containing listings and data for all tombs in the database). Click or drag tab to open and close.

  2. Turning Layers and Maps On and Off. Note: turning on a layer makes it accessible to searching, selection, and manipulation:
    1. Click and open the Layers icon in the vertical Navigation Pane;
    2. make sure the "All Theban Tombs"-layer is selected and active; (nb: this layer is automatically activated when OLGIS-TN starts up);
    3. select any number of topographical maps among the layers to turn them on and make them visible on the satellite base map.

  3. Selecting and Searching for Tombs
    1. Basis of the tomb records (Attribute Table):
      1. Each tomb in the database forms a "record";
      2. each record is associated with a location on the map;
      3. each tomb-record is comprised of multiple "fields" (i.e., tomb no., location, owner, date, reigning king, etc.), and the database can be searched, and tombs can be located according to these data-fields.
      4. In GIS terminology, the contents of these records and fields are called "attributes";
      5. all the records and attributes in the GIS (map and database="All Theban Tombs"-layer) are listed in a master table or spreadsheet called the "Attribute Table";
      6. click or drag the tab at bottom-center of the map in Map Viewer, Main Window, to open the Attribute Table and see the list of tombs currently appearing on the map | 📂 see example |;
      7. Any selected tombs are highlighted in blue in the table and are lit up in blue on the map.
    2. "Selecting" is the term used in GIS for locating and finding tombs and features on the map.
    3. Selecting tombs in an area: one can select one or more tombs according to area or geography using the area-search tools (More > Select or Find and Buffer or Identify a tomb near me).
    4. Perfoming searches: one can search all the tombs in the database, or do a sub-search of those retrieved by a previous area selection (e.g., to find all the tombs of the priests of Amun within a certain diameter on the Qurnah Plain, first "select" all the tombs within that diameter, then "search" their data-fields for the priests' titles).
    5. Two types of searches:
      1. Keyword Search: use the query box on the map to search for identifying terms across all the fields in the Attribute Table (see below, Keyword Search).
      2. Custom/Filtered Search: use the Filter-command to build customized searches according to the fields in the database (i.e.: tomb no., location, owner, date, etc.). One can do a custom search on all the tombs or only those previously selected (see below, Filtered Search).

  4. Photographs and Web Pages of Each Tomb
    1. Photographs. In 2005-2006, the Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs project made over 9,000 high-resolution images of the Theban tombs that it was mapping, as well as associated views of the Theban necropolis from a variety of perspectives and directions. They also include images of the survey work and staff. The OLGIS-TN is currently adding a selection of images of each tomb, mounted as a montage into a single HTML-document for each. The photographs are, for the most part, keyed to the date and time of the collection of each tomb.
    2. Demolition of Naga el-Horobat. The images were taken in a single 22-week field season from October 30, 2005 through March 30, 2006. They depict the condition of the tombs and necropolis at that time, which was before the government's removal of the modern houses across Qurnah and the welcome securing of the necropolis. [5]; These photos depict the results of that first round of demolitions (up through early 2006), including: houses derelicted or removed, new tombs discovered, and old tombs revealed again. The new tombs provide the bases of many of the provisional "p"-tomb numbers that the project assigned (see above). After 2006, the government began in earnest the long-awaited evacuation of the villages and demolition of the remaining houses, freeing many more tombs from the vicissitudes and depredations of occupation. The current database does not yet map the newer tombs revealed after 2006, nor provide their images (although it is expected that in the future it will do so). In the current photos, houses are still apparent, and many tombs are depicted in desperate conditions that have since been cleaned up (i.e, tombs as animal stables, toilets, cesspits, garbage dumps, shower stalls, storerooms, sculleries, etc.).
    3. Accessing Photos and Web Pages. Users can open links to photos and web pages for each tomb in several ways:
      1. open the Attribute Table in the Main Window (Map Viewer), and locate desired tomb; or
      2. click any desired tomb on the map, and open its pop-up window;
      3. then, in either method:
        1. for photographs: click contents of the "Photo Link"-field;
        2. for web pages: click web-page address in "Web Link-field.
      4. Note: Uploading of photos is ongoing. Many tombs' images still wait to be loaded. Images are low-rez montages. Scholars and colleagues wishing higher resolution images for research and publication should apply to the OLGIS-TN for requests and permission. Photographs are copyright P. A. Piccione 2005-2006, all rights reserved.

  5. Navigating by GPS in the Necropolis
    1. While working in the field--inside the necropolis--one can employ the Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate tombs and navigate to them in real time:
      1. Required device: a smartphone, tablet or notebook computer that receives both GPS and live Internet data through a cellular connection or mobile WiFi.
      2. Click the "Find My Location"-widget (compass: compass-icon) in the Main Window, and allow the software and browser to access the device's GPS location;
      3. a blue circular marker is placed on the map denoting the user's currect location in the necropolis;
      4. the marker should shift as the user moves around the tombs;
      5. search for and find target tombs (see below, How to Perform Searches), and follow user's location in relation.
    2. To find and plot tombs by GPS in a circular area around one's location, see below, Find and Buffer-menu.
    3. To designate a particular tomb or location, then identify others by GPS, see below, Identify tombs near me.


DATABASE FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS

Organization of the OLGIS-TN Database

  1. The GIS map and database consist of a series of transparent layers stacked vertically on top of a satellite base map.
  2. The default base map is named "World Imagery," a color photomap of the world with a very high resolution of .60 meters. It means each square pixel on the monitor records an area of ground only 60 centimeters square | 📂 see example |. It can be switched out at any time with a variety of other drawn and schematic base maps of varying resolution (see Base Map Gallery).
  3. "World Imagery" is also freely available on the Map Server of Esri.com (see: https://services.arcgisonline.com/arcgis/rest/services/World_Imagery/MapServer).
  4. "All Theban Tombs" is the name of the primary data layer in OLGIS-TN.
  5. "All Theban Tombs" is the heart of the database. It includes the tombs, their geographical locations, and the mapping and Egyptological data catalogued for each burial. The tombs are visualized geographically as locator-dots on the map, while their associated textual data are compiled in the Attribute Table.
  6. Remaining layers consist of a series of digitized topographical maps.
  7. The layers are projected on to the underlying base map. They can be turned on and off, and transparency levels of any topomap can be adjusted from near opaque to fully transparent.
  8. All the tombs and topomaps can be viewed simultaneously, projected on the base map.
  9. Any tomb can be sited on the base map, as well as any corresponding topomap.
  10. Any feature on a topomap can be located on the base map.
  11. Clicking on any tomb's location-point on a map opens a pop-up window with all the data for that tomb in the GIS database (and the Attribute Table).

Main View Layout (Map Viewer)

  1. The Main Window of the OLGIS-TN is called the Map Viewer. It includes a vertical Navigation Pane on the left side of the screen with a list of Main Menu icons.
  2. Located in the upper left corner of the map is a cluster of widgets for searching and other basic commands) | 📂 see example |:
    1. Query (box for keyword searches across data-fields)
    2. Print (search results and maps)
    3. Ruler (measuring tool for distances, areas, and locations)
    4. Filter (custom or structured searches)
    5. Find My Location Compass (auto-insert the user's location for GPS use)
    6. Home (home view, default zoom)
    7. Plus/Minus (zoom in / zoom out)
  3. In the bottom left corner of the map is the meter scale and a Cross-hairs icon () for pointing and clicking the UTM coordinates of any point on the map.
  4. At the bottom center is the tab to open the "All Theban Tombs"-Attribute Table.
  5. The Attribute Table is a spreadsheet containing the listings and data associated with each tomb in the GIS database (mapping, geographical, archaeological, historical, prosopographical, and bibliographical).


Navigation Pane: Main Menus

Legend Menu
  1. The Legend icon opens a color-coded list of the time periods of the tombs' construction.
  2. Time periods for the tombs include (often based on Porter and Moss' designations):
    1. Old Kingdom
    2. Late Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period
    3. Middle Kingdom
    4. Second Intermediate Period
    5. New Kingdom
    6. New Kingdom or Third Intermediate Period
    7. Third Intermediate Period; Late Period
    8. Undefined

Layers Menu

  1. The Layers icon opens a list of the layers in the database in the order in which they are stacked above the base map from highest to lowest.
  2. Layers can be turned on and off by clicking them in the list.
  3. Layers can be made transparent or moved up and down the list by changing their configuration
  4. Layers can be configured (for the current working session only) by clicking each layer's sub-menu icon (●●●) to drop down a sub-menu listing | 📂 see example |.
  5. Layers Pop-up Menu. Configuring layers (Layers sub-menu): the layer pop-up menu (●●●) consists of the following commands:

    Zoom tozoom to designated layer on map
    Transparencyset level of layer's transparency on base map
    Set visibility rangeset when layer becomes visible & invisible while zooming in and out
    Disable/Enable pop-upin "All Theban Tombs"-layer, disable & enable ability to open pop-up window for each tomb clicked
    Hide labelsin "All Theban Tombs"-layer, turn on & off labels of tomb nos. (to unclutter screen)
    Move upmove layer up in list order, put it on top of other layers
    Move downmove layer down in list order, put it below other layers
    View in Attribute Tablein "All Theban Tombs"-layer, open Attribute Table & view records of all tombs in there
    Show Item Detailsopen new tab to:
    1. view layer's metadata;
    2. export and open layer outside of Map Viewer & ArcGIS Online;
    3. export and open layer in user's own copy of ArcGIS Desktop (ArcMap, ArcGIS Pro, etc.);
    4. view content & structure of data table & fields
    5. adjust Visualization to customize: form of labels, prompts for searches, content of pop-up windows, clustering of points on map, label-features, alignment & visibility

  6. "All Theban Tombs"-layer contains the records of all the tombs and burials cataloged in the GIS database. It includes their locations in UTM, mapping data, and the relevant geographical, historical, archaeological, and bibliographical data for each burial.
  7. "All Theban Tombs"-layer is stacked highest above all the layers below it, so that the tombs will always appear on top of all other layers, including the base-map layer.
  8. "All Theban Tombs"-layer catalogs the burials inside each tomb, including those of the primary owner and any usurper. The database makes no distinction between usurpation and any other kind of secondary burial or reuse.
  9. "All Theban Tombs" is laid out in the Attribute Table, and it can be searched or selected according to the following data fields (for explanations of these terms, see below: Attribute Table):
    1. Record ID.
    2. Tomb No.
    3. Alternate Tomb No.
    4. Location
    5. GPS Collection Date
    6. GPS Collection Time
    7. Elevation (MSL)
    8. Occupant Name
    9. Transliteration Occupant Name
    10. Nickname
    11. Transliteration Nickname
    12. Occupant Status (Primary or Usurper)
    13. Period
    14. Dynasty
    15. Reigning King
    16. Date Begin
    17. Date End
    18. Title 1
    19. Title 2
    20. Title 3
    21. Spouse Name
    22. Transliteration Spouse Name
    23. Father Name
    24. Transliteration Father Name
    25. Mother Name
    26. Transliteration Mother Name
    27. Usurper Name
    28. Transliteration Usurper Name
    29. Photo Link
    30. Web Link
    31. Notes
    32. Bibliography
  10. Topographical Maps. Other layers in the OLGIS-TN database currently include the following topographical maps (additional maps will be added in the future):
    1. "El Asasif," Plan 1 (Dorner, Eigner and Tanzer, 1969, 1979, 1983) [6]; digital scan provided courtesy of Mr. Alban-Brice Pimpaud, formerly of the EAIS and Ministry of Antiquities GIS Center;
    2. Survey of Egypt (1921, 1924), maps no.: D03, C04, E04, D05, D04, provided by the Egyptian Antiquities Information System (EAIS) of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, Naguib Amin, Director, and the Center for Ancient Middle Eastern Landscapes (CAMEL) of The Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago, Scott Branting, Director;
    3. É. Baraize, Plan des nécropoles thébaines (1904-1913), maps no.: [xx], 51, 43, 42, 41, 32, 20; scans provided courtesy of Mr. Alban-Brice Pimpaud.

Base Map Gallery

  1. Currently six possible base maps are available for selection (provided by Esri):
    1. World Imagery Map (default, hi-rez satellite-image base map) (see base map above)
    2. Open Street Map (English and Arabic)
    3. Streets (low-rez relief, English and Arabic)
    4. Light Gray Canvas
    5. Topographic (medium-rez, relief with contours, English and Arabic)
    6. World Imagery Map (same as above) with labels and boundaries

More Menu

  1. Select Menu (search for tombs within a selected area or by location):
    1. step 1, designate an area by manually drawing a shape anywhere on the map; selected tombs will appear within the shape and will be listed in the Attribute Table:
      1. point;
      2. rectangle: draw a rectangle on the map to select tombs within;
      3. polygon: draw an irregularly shaped polygon on the map to select tombs within;
      4. circle: draw a circle of any diameter on the map to select tombs within;
      5. lasso: circumscribe an irregular area to select tombs within;
      6. line: draw a line of any length on the map and locate and identify tombs along its length;
    2. step 2, filter selected tombs:
      1. after selected tombs appear within the shape and are listed in the Attribute Table, narrow the selection further with a custom Filtered Search within the Attribute Table itself according to relevant data-fields and criteria (see below, Searching the Attribute Table).

  2. Draw Menu
    1. enter draw mode; draw figures, lines, and text in the Map Viewer:
      1. draw arbitrary shapes on the map of any color, thickness, shading or transparency, including: lines, polygons, circles, geometric shapes, free-hand figures;
      2. insert points as place markers with coordinates (degrees latitude/longitude);
      3. type text, labels, etc., on the map.

  3. Find and Buffer Menu (diameter search)
    1. find and select tombs within a specific diameter anywhere on the map:
      1. pin a point on the map;
      2. designate a circle around that point by specifying a diameter of any length;
      3. all tombs within the circle are selected and highlighted, and listed in the Attribute Table (see below, More Menu > Find and Buffer);
      4. further narrow that search, if necessary, by performing a custom Filtered Search within the Attribute Table according to relevant data-fields and criteria (see below, Searching the Attribute Table).

  4. Identify tombs near to me
    1. Locate a tomb by designated the tomb no. or by the user's GPS location, or by a point on map; then identify additional tombs in relation to the first or each other. (see below, Identify tombs near to me).

  5. Share this Site
    1. Share or post web links for this application to other sites on the Internet and imbed maps and layers there, including:
      1. Email
      2. Facebook
      3. Twitter
      4. Google+
    2. Link Options allow the user to format the post with choices about map extent, finding locations, querying features, adding markers, adjusting layer visibility, etc.
    3. Embed Options allow the user to set a custom size for the map posted.


Determining Location Coordinates

  1. Find Coordinates of Points and Features
    1. UTM coordinates of the tombs do not currently appear in the Attribute Table, nor in any search or selection, nor query results.
    2. Several methods exist to find the coordinates of any individual tomb, structure, or feature:
      1. activate the Cross-hairs icon () in bottom left corner of the map in main window; point and click on any tomb or feature; a green marker is pinned to that point, and UTM coordinates appear beside the Cross-hairs icon (); or
      2. click the Ruler-widget; open pop-up window; click "Location"-icon ; point and click arrow on tomb or any map-feature; a green location marker is pinned, and latitude and longitude appear in a list in the Ruler pop-up window; or
      3. for a tomb's coordinates: click on the location-point of any tomb, and open its pop-up window; click menu icon (●●●) on bottom right, and choose "+ Add a marker"; blue location marker appears on the tomb; click the marker; pop-up opens with latitude and longitude;
      4. to close the marker: click menu icon (●●●) on bottom right; choose "x Remove a marker".


Calculate Lengths and Areas

  1. Measure Length and Distance:
    1. click on the Ruler-widget in the upper left corner of the Map Viewer, Main Window, and open the Ruler-pop-up window;
    2. click and highlight the Ruler ("Distance")-icon; choose measuring system (metric, imperial, etc.);
    3. click cursor-arrow on points across the map; lengths appear in the Ruler-pop-up window.
    4. Lines can be snapped continuously into geometrical shapes to calculate perimeters around areas and features.
    5. All linear measurements are understood along the ground and not in the air.

  2. Measure Area Dimensions (Square Meters, Kilometers, etc.):
    1. The area of any structure, section or feature on the map can be measured in square meters, kilometers, hectares, acres, etc.;
    2. click the Ruler-widget in the upper left corner of the Map Viewer, Main Window, and open the Ruler-pop-up window;
    3. click and highlight the "Area"-icon; choose measuring system (metric, imperial, etc.);
    4. click the cursor-arrow successively on the map along the margins or outline of the structure, feature or area to be measured;
    5. the area is automatically filled and shaded, and the measurement appears in the Ruler-pop-up window.


Attribute Table

  1. The Attribute Table is the core of the GIS database. It contains all the data fields (or attributes) in the "All Theban Tombs"-layer according to which each tomb-record is cataloged, and it can be Filter-searched or queried to find any number of tombs on the map (see below).
  2. Open and view the table by clicking the rectangular tab at the bottom center of the map in the main window. The table will slide up vertically from the bottom | 📂 see example |.

    Record ID. unique no. generated sequentially by GIS at creation of entry
    Tomb No. Theban tomb series no. (tt); Kampp no. (k); Metropolitan Museum of Art no. (mma); provisional no. (p); Porter and Moss unclassified no., etc.
    Alternate Tomb No. other nos. associated with tomb (additional, earlier, or later)
    Location specific area within Theban necropolis: Asasif, el-Khokha, Deir el-Bahari, Qurnah South, Qurnah reverse slope, Qurnet Murai, SAQ Lower Enclosure, SAQ Plain, SAQ Upper Enclosure
    GPS Collection Date date tomb/burial was collected and mapped by Satellite Survey of Theban Tombs project
    GPS Collection Time time of day tomb/burial was collected and mapped by survey project
    Elevation (MSL) altitude or height of tomb above mean sea level (approx.)
    Occupant name of deceased as occupier of tomb/burial (original or usurper)
    Translit. Occupant transliteration of occupant's name
    Nickname nickname of occupant
    Translit. Nickname transliteration of occupant's nickname
    Occupant Status primary owner/builder, usurper, or unknown
    Period time period or era of tomb's construction or usurpation
    Dynasty dynasty or range of dynasties of tomb's construction or usurpation
    Reigning King specific king or range of kings associated with tomb's construction, use, and usurpation
    Date Begin estimated beginning year-date of reigning king(s)
    Date End estimated ending year-date of reigning king(s)
    Title 1 primary title of occupant
    Title 2 secondary title of occupant
    Title 3 other titles of occupant (listed in series)
    Spouse name of spouse: wife or husband (not to be assumed the owner is always a man/husband)
    Translit. Spouse transliteration of spouse's name
    Father name of occupant's father
    Translit. Father transliteration of father's name
    Mother name of occupant's mother
    Translit. Mother transliteration of mother's name
    Usurper name of usurper (occurs in primary record only; see below for details)
    Translit. Usurper transliteration of usurper's name (occurs in primary record only)
    Photo Link link to montage of photographs of the tomb and surroundings
    Web Link link to addresses on the World Wide Web (URL) to pages pertaining to tomb/burial
    Notes comments, notes on history and archaeology of tomb, architecture, owner; notes on tomb's situation and condition from mapping survey; references to scholars' assertions, and debates about tomb
    Bibliography PM and Kampp refs.; updated bibliography of sources published since PM; does not--as a rule--repeat bibliography in PM

  3. Usurpers and Usurpation in the Table. The database catalogs burials in the tombs, including those of primary owners and usurpers.
  4. "Usurpation" here means any reuse for interment. OLGIS-TN does not distinguish between "usurpation" and any other kind of secondary burial, either ill-intended or non-hostile occupation (even by family descendents or for later communal burials).
  5. Currently, any usurped tomb usually has two or more records in the Attribute Table, each occupying the same location on the map:
    1. the primary record identifies the name and date of the original owner of tomb with the status of "Primary Owner";
    2. the secondary record identifies the name and date of the later occupant with the status of "Usurper".
  6. The Usurper and Translit. Usurper-fields in the table occur only in the primary record of a usurped tomb (unless the usurper has been usurped by later second usurper (e.g., tt068).
  7. See below for more details and instructions (Usurpers and Usurpation of Tombs).


Custom Searching the Attribute Table ("All Theban Tombs"-Layer)

  1. Open the table by clicking the rectangular tab at the bottom center of the map. The full database currently reads "734 features 0 selected."
  2. The tombs found in every Selection and every Find and Buffer, and every Filter-search are listed in the table. As successive active searches continue to add or reduce the number of tombs found, these changes are also reflected in the table's contents.
  3. To search the open Attribute Table:
    1. on the table's Toolbar, click Options > Filter | 📂 see example |;
    2. the Filter pop-up window opens with search dialogue) | 📂 see example |;
    3. to query a single field, choose "+ Add expression";
    4. to query multiple fields, choose "+ Add set";
    5. in left box, select search field from drop-down menu;
    6. click Settings-icon (⚙) on right, and "Set input type" | 📂 see example |:
      1. "Value" (for the user's choice of search term);
      2. "Unique" (for program-supplied pre-set term in pull-down menu);
    7. in right box, type a search term, or select a pre-set from pull-down menu;
    8. Hint: if user types own search term, then best to search by "contains" instead of "is";
    9. to add additional parameters and to search multiple-fields, re-select "+ Add expression", and repeat same procedure as above;
    10. with a multiple-fields search, determine if you are searching for the term(s) in "all" of the expressions (=Boolean "AND") or in "any" of them (=Boolean "OR");
    11. click "OK";
    12. the new search results appear on the map and are listed in the Attribute Table | 📂 see example |.

  4. To print or download a map of an active search from the Attribute Table:
    1. click on Printer-widget in upper left corner of the Map Viewer, Main Window, and open the Print-dialogue window (do not clear the search or the table!) | 📂 see example |;
    2. choose desired Layout, Format, and Advanced settings;
    3. Print will generate the map in the current web browser, from which it can be saved or printed (see below for more details, Printing Search Results).

  5. To download an active search of data-records from the Attribute Table:
    1. on the table's Toolbar, click Options > "Export all to CSV" (i.e., comma-delimited spreadsheet) | 📂 see example |;
    2. save CSV-file to drive; open in Excel or other spreadsheet software (or in a word processor and reformat).
    3. Hint: The contents of the entire table of the "All Theban Tombs"-layer can be downloaded, if all the tombs are showing on the map, and zero (0) are selected.

  6. Clearing and closing the search:
    1. Close the active search when finished to return to the full database with all tombs showing on the map and table.
    2. To close and clear the active search manually delete each expression-box [X] in the Filter pop-up window.
    3. If the expressions are not deleted and the search not cleared, the database will continue to work only with the previous search selection, not the full database.

  7. Note: UTM coordinates of the tombs do not appear in the Attribute Table nor in any search or query results!
    1. Coordinates of the tombs cannot be searched with Select and Filter-commands; they cannot be downloaded into a single list.
    2. For methods to determine coordinates of any individual tomb, structure, or feature (see above Determining Location Coordinates).


Usurpers and Usurpation of Tombs and Burials

  1. Currently, any tomb with a usurper (either named or "Unknown") has two or more records in the database sharing the same location on the map:
    1. the primary record identifying the name and date of the Occupant-original owner having an Occupant Status of "Primary Owner";
    2. a secondary record identifying the name and date of the Occupant-usurper having an Occupant Status of "Usurper".
  2. The Usurper and Translit. Usurper-fields occur only in the primary record of a usurped tomb (unless the usurper has been usurped by later second usurper = two usurpations (e.g., tt068).
  3. When Filter-searching data fields that occur in both(!) records of usurped tombs (e.g., the same Tomb-no.-field appears in both records), the search will retrieve both primary and secondary records, and each will be listed separately in the Attribute Table.
  4. However on the map, only one location-point and one pop-up window per tomb can occur:
    1. the initial pop-up window's Toolbar says "(1 of 2)", and a right arrow (►) appears;
    2. then clicking on the arrows (◄ ►) toggles back and forth through the pop-up windows of each burial in the tomb (i.e., "Primary Owner" and "Usurper").
  5. Conversely, Filter-searching a data-field that occurs in only one record of a usurped tomb will only retrieve the single record (e.g., a search for tombs whose Usurper-field "is not blank" {i.e., all usurped tombs} will return only the primary record of each usurped tomb).
  6. Alternatively, a compound Filtered Search for any tombs whose Usurper-field "is not blank" or whose Occupant Status is "Usurper" (=Boolean "OR") should retrieve both primary and secondary records of the usurped tombs in the Attribute Table.


How to Perform Searches and Selections

  1. Keyword Search. Search tombs and features by any word appearing anywhere in the Attribute Table:
    1. The white query box for entering keyword searches is located in Map Viewer, Main Window, upper left corner.
    2. Entering a term causes OLGIS-TN to search all the fields of the Attribute Table, e.g., names, tomb nos., titles, year-dates, notes, bibliography, etc.;
    3. the database returns a drop-down list with tomb nos. identifying records in which the term occurs;
    4. clicking on the term in the list highlights the tomb on the map and opens its pop-up window with tomb data.

  2. Filtered Search. Search the full database, Map Viewer, Main Window, by the data-fields in "All Theban Tombs":
    1. In the upper left corner of the map, click the Filtered-Search-widget .
    2. The Filtered-Search pop-up window opens with search dialogue | 📂 see example |.
    3. Note: This popup window and dialogue are different from the Attribute Table's Filtered search (see above):
      1. in the "Layer"-box, select "All Theban Tombs";
      2. choose "+ Add expression" to query a single field;
      3. alternatively, choose "+ Add set" to query multiple fields;
      4. in the top box, select the data-field to be searched from the drop-down menu;
      5. click Settings-icon (⚙) below-right, and "Set input type" | 📂 see example |:
        1. "Value" (for user's own choice of a search term);
        2. "Unique" (for a program-supplied pre-set term in pull-down menu);
      6. in the lower box, type a search term (if Input Type="Value"), or select a pre-set term from the pull-down menu (if Input Type="Unique");
      7. in the middle box, select the appropriate search operator, e.g.: is, is not, starts with, end with, contains, does not contain, is any of, is none of, is blank, is not blank, etc.
      8. Different search operators exist for text, numbers, and dates in the data-fields.
      9. Hint: if user types own search term, then best to search by "contains" instead of "is";
      10. to add additional parameters and to search multiple-fields, re-select "+ Add expression", and repeat same procedure as above;
      11. with a multiple-fields search, determine if you are searching for the term(s) in "all" of the expressions, which will limit the search (=Boolean "AND") or in "any" of them, which will expand the search (=Boolean "OR");
      12. as the search boxes are processed, the found tombs appear on the map, and are listed in the Attribute Table.
    4. The search results will remain active and will restrict further searches to the current data set, even when the user closes the Filtered-Search pop-up window; otherwise, clear the current search to return to the full database (see below).

  3. Selection and Search by Area or Location
    1. "Selecting" and "Buffering" are the processes of designating a space or area of specific dimensions on the map and identifying any tombs and features within it.
    2. In Main Menu, click More > Select or Find and Buffer or Identify tombs near me.

    3. Select Menu:
      1. choose a shape from the list to manually draw or designate the area on the map being searched: point, line, polygon, circle, rectangle, triangle; oval; free-hand;
      2. use the cursor/pointer to draw the shape;
      3. the selected tombs are highlighted within the shape on the map, and they are listed in the Attribute Table;
      4. narrow the selection further, if necessary, with a custom Filtered Search according to relevant data-fields and criteria (see above, Filtered Search).

    4. Find and Buffer Menu (locate and plot tombs within a specific circular area on the map):
      1. Note: Only circular buffers are possible in this web application.
      2. Two methods of circular buffering are:
        1. using GPS to locate and draw a circle around one's position in the necropolis;
        2. pinning a point on the map as center of a circle.
      3. To find tombs around one's position using GPS:
        1. Open Find and Buffer menu;
        2. select the Find my location-icon (=compass ) to allow OLGIS-TN to access user's GPS location;
        3. user's location appears on the map with a pin-marker;
        4. use the sliding scale on the menu to extend a circle around all the tombs within a radius of 1-300 m. from the user.
        5. One can move actively through the necropolis with GPS turned on and always be aware of the surrounding tombs. Note: the pin will not move or track a trail; the user must drop the pin and re-acquire manually.
      4. To find tombs by manually pinning a location-marker on the map:
        1. In the Find and Buffer menu, select the "Set Location"-icon ;
        2. use cursor/pointer to establish a pin on the map;
        3. use the sliding scale on the menu to extend a circle around all the tombs from 1-300 m. from the pin;
      5. In both methods, the selected tombs are listed in the More Menu according to their distances from the user or pin.
      6. Further narrow the search, if necessary, with a custom Filtered Search (see above, Filtered Search).
      7. Other GIS functions are still available, e.g., the Ruler-widget to measure any lengths or areas.

    5. Identify tombs near to me (+GPS)
      1. Note: Only circular searches are possible in this application; they might be used in conjunction with GPS; then if necessary, identify further tombs in relation to the first or each other.
      2. Three methods of identifying tombs are:
        1. designating a specific tomb no. to locate;
        2. using GPS to automatically locate and draw a circle around the user's position;
        3. manually pinning a location-marker on the map as the center of a circle.
      3. Designate and locate a specific tomb and surrounding structures by its tomb number:
        1. Open menu, and fill the search box with the designated tomb number;
        2. the target tomb is highlighted on map, and a panel with the tomb's data slides open in the More Menu | 📂 see example |.
        3. To identify tombs surrounding the target tomb:
          1. set a pin on the target tomb by clicking the "search nearby"-icon () in the data-panel (bottom right);
          2. adjust the slide-rule to the desired number of meters around the target tomb;
          3. a circle extends around all the tombs from 1-300 m. from the pin;
          4. surrounding tombs within the circle are now listed in the More Menu according to their distances from the pinned tomb; click to open each entry and highlight the tomb on the map.
      4. Identify tombs near to the user's position using GPS (similar to Find and Buffer above):
        1. Be sure the device's GPS is activated;
        2. open menu, and select the Find my location-icon (=compass );
        3. user's location appears on the map with a pin-marker;
        4. use the sliding scale on the menu to extend a circle encompassing all the tombs surrounding the pin according to the diameter on the sliding-scale;
        5. the selected tombs within the circle are now listed in the More Menu in order of their distances from the user's location-pin;
        6. clicking each each entry in the list highlights that tomb on the map and opens a panel with its tomb data.
      5. Identify tombs near to a set location on the map (similar to Find and Buffer above):
        1. Open menu, and select the "Set Location"-icon ;
        2. use cursor/pointer to manually set a pin anywhere on the map;
        3. adjust the sliding scale to extend a circle around all the tombs from 1-300 m. from the pin; | 📂 see example |;
      6. To shift and re-center the circle around any other tomb in the list:
        1. click the desired tomb in the list, and open its data panel;
        2. click the "search nearby"-icon () in the panel;
        3. the pin and circle jump to the new tomb; adjust the sliding scale, if desired, to widen or narrow the diameter.


Clear a Search

  1. Clearing the search returns all the tombs to the map and Attribute Table, and the status line below the table reads: "734 features 0 selected." A new search of the entire database is now possible:
    1. after completing the previous search, click the sliding button in the upper right corner of the Filter pop-up window, and
    2. manually delete each expression-box [X] in the Filtered-Search pop-up window.
  2. If the previous search expressions are not deleted, and the search is not cleared, the database will continue to work only with the previous limited search results, not the full database.


Print Search Results (Maps and Data)

  1. Printing and Downloading Maps:
  2. One can print search results of the tombs from both the base map and the Attribute Table.
  3. The printed image will include the screen image of the tombs on the base map, including any overlaid topographical maps, markers, drawings, etc.
  4. Format, scale and extent of the map and any labels can be determined in the Print-dialogue window.
    1. Print any map or data while the current search is still active (the selected tombs appear on the map);
    2. the Filtered-Search popup window can be safely minimized [X] without clearing the search;
    3. click on the Printer-widget in upper left corner of the Map Viewer in the Main Window, and open the Print-dialogue window | 📂 see example |;
    4. select print parameters (Layout and Format);
    5. Layout:, choose to print or download only the map ("Map_Only") or to mount the map on a page with labels (choose page size);
    6. Format:, select from any number of graphic formats (EPS, GIF, JPG, PDF, PNG8, PNG32, SVG, SVGZ); note: TIF and BMP formats are not supported;
    7. Advanced:, determine and select all other parameters for downloading or printing (resolution, scale, extent, labels, metadata, etc.);
    8. HINT: To print or generate a digital map for publication, it should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi at the intended publication size, or 1200 dpi or more if the publisher will need to enlarge it.
    9. Print-command will generate and open the map in the current web browser; from there it can be saved or printed.

  5. Printing Data from Attribute Table: (see above, Printing Attribute Table).


Export and Open Data Outside of OLGIS-TN

  1. Export Tomb Data from Active Search Result:
    1. To download from the Attribute Table: in the table's Toolbar, click Options > "Export all to CSV" (i.e., comma-delimited spreadsheet) | 📂 see example |;
    2. save CSV-file to drive; open in Excel or other comma-delimited spreadsheet (or in a word processor and reformat).
  2. Hint: The contents of the entire table of the "All Theban Tombs"-layer can be exported or downloaded, if all the tombs are showing on the map, and zero (0) are selected.

  3. Export Layers and Maps to Local ArcGIS Desktop. Any layer or topographical map, including the entire "All Theban Tombs"-Attribute Table, can be downloaded and opened in ArcMap or ArcGIS Pro software that is resident on the user's local computer. Here the data can be independently saved and manipulated as needed. However, the UTM location-coordinates of the tombs are not currently included in any download.
    1. Open Layers Menu; select the desired layer to open ("All Theban Tombs" or any map);
    2. click on that layer's pop-up menu (●●●); cursor to bottom of list, and select "Show Item Details" | 📂 see example |:
    3. the Item Details-page of the map or "All Theban Tombs"-table will open in a separate window (all background info and metadata for the layer are located here);
    4. click on "Open in ArcGIS Desktop"; select "ArcMap" or "ArcGIS Pro".
    5. The layer's contents (map or table) are downloaded to the user's computer and opened in the copy of ArcGIS Desktop running locally.


Other Functions

  1. Contribute Data to the OLGIS-TN. Scholars and students are invited to submit findings from their research, if they so desire, for inclusion in the OLGIS-TN, including data, maps, plans, bibliographies, etc. At all times they retain copyright and ownership of any contributions, and all intellectual rights. Contributors are acknowledged by name in the database. Additional bibliographies of tombs, as well as any web pages, are gratefully accepted. Note: A procedure for loading data from directly within the OLGIS-TN does exist and is forthcoming!).

  2. Altering the Visualization of the Layers. Users can alter or modify how tombs in the "All Theban Tombs"-layer are visualized and presented on the maps and in the pop-up windows for the duration of the current working session only. These changes include: adjustments to customize the forms of labels, prompts for searches, content of pop-up windows, clustering of points on the map, label-features, their color, alignment & visibility.
    1. Open Layers Menu; select the "All Theban Tombs"-layer;
    2. click on its pop-up menu (●●●); cursor to bottom of list, and select "Show Item Details" | 📂 see example |;
    3. the Item Details-page of the "All Theban Tombs"-table opens in a separate window (where all background and metadata are located) | 📂 see example |;
    4. click on "Visualization";
    5. a new topographical basemap opens showing all the tombs; here the user can change the map itself, as well as how the tombs are presented on the map, including the layer's default style, filtered-search parameters, pop-up windows, and label formats, colors, positions, etc. (for as long as the window is open).


Contacts

  1. Technical: For questions about technology and for technical issues related to the software, command structures, utilities and functions, or for suggestions for improving the application software, direct enquiries to Norman Levine, Ph.D. (levinen@cofc.edu). Please note that many of the issues of form and formatting are structural to this ArcGIS Online template and cannot be modified.
  2. Egyptological: For questions and comments related to Egyptological issues and archaeological content, or to contribute information on tombs, owners, dates, content, bibliography, photographs, etc., contact Peter Piccione, Ph.D. (piccionep@cofc.edu).


Legal

All the maps and tomb data in the OLGIS-TN are provided gratis to scholars and students for not-for-profit educational and research purposes and for archaeological site management and preservation. The owners and authors of this database are Peter A. Piccione and Norman S. Levine under the aegis of the University of Charleston, S.C., College of Charleston. It is permitted to download search results and related maps for printing and digital storage, or for publication in academic studies, as well as to load into spreadsheets and local versions of ArcGIS for purposes related to research, education, site management and historical preservation. However, this material may not be used for any profit-making enterprises or purposes other than those listed here without the written consent of the authors.

Note: the OLGIS-TN does not currently provide for--nor does it permit--dumping the entire database with listings of the tombs' coordinates. Neither does it authorize any mirror sites or unauthorized translations, compromising its rights of authorship and intellectual control.

Unless stated otherwise, scholars and students who employ or incorporate resources, printouts or downloads from the OLGIS-TN database in their research and publications are requested to acknowledge source and authorship: "Courtesy of OLGIS-TN. © 2019. All rights reserved." Photographs are copyright P. A. Piccione 2005-2006. All rights reserved.

Use of any Esri base maps also requires appropriate Esri copyright notice, "© 1995-2018 Esri. All rights reserved." Use of the OLGIS-TN constitutes acceptance of these conditions.


Last update: 8/26/19